Disk Defragmentation — Haskell — #adventofcode Day 14
This post is part of the series Advent of Code 2017
- Reflections on #aoc2017
- The Halting Problem — Python — #adventofcode Day 25
- Electromagnetic Moat — Rust — #adventofcode Day 24
- Coprocessor Conflagration — Haskell — #adventofcode Day 23
- Sporifica Virus — Rust — #adventofcode Day 22
- Fractal Art — Python — #adventofcode Day 21
- Particle Swarm — Python — #adventofcode Day 20
- A Series of Tubes — Rust — #adventofcode Day 19
- Duet — Haskell — #adventofcode Day 18
- Spinlock — Rust/Python — #adventofcode Day 17
- Permutation Promenade — Julia — #adventofcode Day 16
- Dueling Generators — Rust — #adventofcode Day 15
- > Disk Defragmentation — Haskell — #adventofcode Day 14 <
- Packet Scanners — Haskell — #adventofcode Day 13
- Digital Plumber — Python — #adventofcode Day 12
- Hex Ed — Python — #adventofcode Day 11
- Knot Hash — Haskell — #adventofcode Day 10
- Stream Processing — Haskell — #adventofcode Day 9
- I Heard You Like Registers — Python — #adventofcode Day 8
- Recursive Circus — Ruby — #adventofcode Day 7
- Memory Reallocation — Python — #adventofcode Day 6
- A Maze of Twisty Trampolines — C++ — #adventofcode Day 5
- High Entropy Passphrases — Python — #adventofcode Day 4
- Spiral Memory — Go — #adventofcode Day 3
- Corruption Checksum — Python — #adventofcode Day 2
- Inverse Captcha — Coconut — #adventofcode Day 1
- Advent of Code 2017: introduction
Today’s challenge has us helping a disk defragmentation program by identifying contiguous regions of used sectors on a 2D disk.
!!! commentary Wow, today’s challenge had a pretty steep learning curve. Day 14 was the first to directly reuse code from a previous day: the “knot hash” from day 10. I solved day 10 in Haskell, so I thought it would be easier to stick with Haskell for today as well. The first part was straightforward, but the second was pretty mind-bending in a pure functional language!
I ended up solving it by implementing a [flood fill algorithm][flood]. It's recursive, which is right in Haskell's wheelhouse, but I ended up using `Data.Sequence` instead of the standard list type as its API for indexing is better. I haven't tried it, but I think it will also be a little faster than a naive list-based version. It took a looong time to figure everything out, but I had a day off work to be able to concentrate on it!
A lot more imports for this solution, as we’re exercising a lot more of the standard library.
module Main where import Prelude hiding (length, filter, take) import Data.Char (ord) import Data.Sequence import Data.Foldable hiding (length) import Data.Ix (inRange) import Data.Function ((&)) import Data.Maybe (fromJust, mapMaybe, isJust) import qualified Data.Set as Set import Text.Printf (printf) import System.Environment (getArgs)
Also we’ll extract the key bits from day 10 into a module and import that.
Now we define a few data types to make the code a bit more readable.
Sector represent the state of a particular disk sector, either free, used (but unmarked) or used and marked as belonging to a given integer-labelled group.
Grid is a 2D matrix of
Sector, as a sequence of sequences.
data Sector = Free | Used | Mark Int deriving (Eq) instance Show Sector where show Free = " ." show Used = " #" show (Mark i) = printf "%4d" i type GridRow = Seq Sector type Grid = Seq (GridRow)
Some utility functions to make it easier to view the grids (which can be quite large): used for debugging but not in the finished solution.
subGrid :: Int -> Grid -> Grid subGrid n = fmap (take n) . take n printRow :: GridRow -> IO () printRow row = do mapM_ (putStr . show) row putStr "\n" printGrid :: Grid -> IO () printGrid = mapM_ printRow
makeKey generates the hash key for a given row.
makeKey :: String -> Int -> String makeKey input n = input ++ "-" ++ show n
stringToGridRow converts a binary string of ‘1’ and ‘0’ characters to a sequence of
stringToGridRow :: String -> GridRow stringToGridRow = fromList . map convert where convert x | x == '1' = Used | x == '0' = Free
makeGrid build up the grid to use based on the provided input string.
makeRow :: String -> Int -> GridRow makeRow input n = stringToGridRow $ concatMap (printf "%08b") $ dense $ fullKnotHash 256 $ map ord $ makeKey input n makeGrid :: String -> Grid makeGrid input = fromList $ map (makeRow input) [0..127]
Utility functions to count the number of used and free sectors, to give the solution to part 1.
countEqual :: Sector -> Grid -> Int countEqual x = sum . fmap (length . filter (==x)) countUsed = countEqual Used countFree = countEqual Free
Now the real meat begins!
fundUnmarked finds the location of the next used sector that we haven’t yet marked. It returns a
Maybe value, which is
Just (x, y) if there is still an unmarked block or
Nothing if there’s nothing left to mark.
findUnmarked :: Grid -> Maybe (Int, Int) findUnmarked g | y == Nothing = Nothing | otherwise = Just (fromJust x, fromJust y) where hasUnmarked row = isJust $ elemIndexL Used row x = findIndexL hasUnmarked g y = case x of Nothing -> Nothing Just x' -> elemIndexL Used $ index g x'
floodFill implements a very simple recursive flood fill. It takes a target and replacement value and a starting location, and fills in the replacement value for every connected location that currently has the target value. We use it below to replace a connected used region with a marked region.
floodFill :: Sector -> Sector -> (Int, Int) -> Grid -> Grid floodFill t r (x, y) g | inRange (0, length g - 1) x && inRange (0, length g - 1) y && elem == t = let newRow = update y r row newGrid = update x newRow g in newGrid & floodFill t r (x+1, y) & floodFill t r (x-1, y) & floodFill t r (x, y+1) & floodFill t r (x, y-1) | otherwise = g where row = g `index` x elem = row `index` y
markNextGroup looks for an unmarked group and marks it if found. If no more groups are found it returns
markAllGroups then repeatedly applies
Nothing is returned.
markNextGroup :: Int -> Grid -> Maybe Grid markNextGroup i g = case findUnmarked g of Nothing -> Nothing Just loc -> Just $ floodFill Used (Mark i) loc g markAllGroups :: Grid -> Grid markAllGroups g = markAllGroups' 1 g where markAllGroups' i g = case markNextGroup i g of Nothing -> g Just g' -> markAllGroups' (i+1) g'
onlyMarks filters a grid row and returns a list of (possibly duplicated) group numbers in the row.
onlyMarks :: GridRow -> [Int] onlyMarks = mapMaybe getMark . toList where getMark Free = Nothing getMark Used = Nothing getMark (Mark i) = Just i
countGroups puts all the group numbers into a set to get rid of duplicates and returns the size of the set, i.e. the total number of separate groups.
countGroups :: Grid -> Int countGroups g = Set.size groupSet where groupSet = foldl' Set.union Set.empty $ fmap rowToSet g rowToSet = Set.fromList . toList . onlyMarks
As always, every Haskell program needs a main function to drive the I/O and produce the actual result.
main = do input <- fmap head getArgs let grid = makeGrid input used = countUsed grid marked = countGroups $ markAllGroups grid putStrLn $ "Used sectors: " ++ show used putStrLn $ "Groups: " ++ show marked
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